A psychological theory or analytical method based on the belief that certain mental faculties and character traits are indicated by the configurations of the skull. A theory dating back to 1795-1805.
O.S. Fowler, 1809-1887
Orson Squire Fowler was born 11 October 1809 in Cohocton, New York. He became interested in phrenology while a student at Amherst College, New York. He and his brother Lorenzo popularized the theory of phrenology that was often used to justify slavery. He opened a phrenological establishment in Philadelphia in 1838 and lectured on the topic. The town of Fowler, Colorado was name for him. He died 18 August 1887 in Sharon, Connecticut.
L.N. Fowler, 1811-1896
Lorenzo Niles Fowler was born in 1811 in Cohocton, New York. Along with his wife, Lydia, and his brother Orson, he popularized the theory of phrenology. He opened a phrenological establishment in New York in 1836 and helped popularize the phrenological best. In 1838 he and his brother founded the American Phrenological Journal and Miscellany which continued beyond their deaths until 1911. He died 2 September 1896 in West Orange, New Jersey.
New Illustrated Self-Instructor in Phrenology and Physiology; with Over One Hundred Engravings by O.S. and L.N. Fowler. Published by Fowler and Wells, New York, 1859.